Donchin O, Francis JT, Shadmehr R (2003) Quantifying Generalization from Trial-by-Trial behavior of Adaptive Systems that Learn with Basis Functions: Theory and Experiments in Human Motor Control, Journal of Neuroscience, 23:9032-9045.

Abstract During reaching movements, the brain's internal models map desired limb motion into predicted forces.  When the forces in the task change, these models adapt.  Adaptation is guided by generalization: errors in one movement influence prediction in other types of movement.  If the mapping is accomplished with population coding --- combining basis elements that encode different regions of movement space --- then generalization can reveal the encoding of the basis elements.  We present a theory that relates encoding to generalization using trial-to-trial changes in behavior during adaptation.  We consider adaptation during reaching movements in various velocity-dependent force fields and quantify how errors generalize across direction.  We find that the measurement of error is critical to the theory.  A typical assumption in motor control is that error is the difference between a current trajectory and a desired trajectory (DJ) that does not change during adaptation.  Under this assumption, in all force fields that we examined, including one where forces randomly changes from trial-to-trial, we find a bimodal generalization pattern, perhaps reflecting basis elements that encode direction bimodally. If the DJ is allowed to vary, bimodality was reduced or eliminated, but the generalization function accounted for nearly twice as much variance.   We suggest, therefore, that basis elements representing the internal model of dynamics are sensitive to limb velocity with bimodal tuning.  However, it is also possible that during adaptation the error metric itself adapts, which affects the implied shape of the basis elements.

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