Biological learning and control: How the brain builds representations, predicts events, and makes decisions. Reza Shadmehr and Sandro Mussa-Ivaldi (2012) MIT Press

Computational Neurobiology of Reaching and Pointing: A Foundation for Motor Learning. Reza Shadmehr and Steven P. Wise (2005) MIT Press.

Review articles

Distinct neural circuits for control of movement vs. holding still. Reza Shadmehr (2017) Journal of Neurophysiology 117:1431-1460.

Learning to predict and control the physics of our movements. Reza Shadmehr (2017) Journal of Neuroscience 37:1663-1671.

Cerebellar output encodes a corrective saccade command. David Herzfeld and Reza Shadmehr (2016) European Journal of Neuroscience 44:2528-2530.

Electrifying the motor engram: effects of tDCS on motor learning and control. JJO de Xivry and R Shadmehr (2014) Experimental Brain Research 232:3379-3395.

Motor variability is not noise, but grist for the learning mill. DJ Herzfeld and R Shadmehr (2014) Nature Neuroscience 17:149-150.

Cerebellum estimates the sensory state of the body. DJ Herzfeld and R Shadmehr (2014) Trends in Cognitive Neurosciences 18:66-67.

From equilibrium point to optimal control. Reza Shadmehr (2010) Motor Control 14:1-6.

Control of movements and temporal discounting of reward. R Shadmehr (2010) Current Opinion in Neurobiology 20:1-5.

The coordination of movement: optimal feedback control and beyond. J Diedrichsen, R Shadmehr, and RB Ivry (2010) Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14:31-39.

Error correction, sensory prediction, and adaptation in motor control. Reza Shadmehr, Maurice A Smith, and John W Krakauer (2010) Annual Reviews of Neuroscience 33:89-108.

Computational neuroanatomy of voluntary motor control. Reza Shadmehr and John W Krakauer (2009) In: The Cognitive Neurosciences, MS Gazzaniga (ed.) MIT Press, pp. 587-597.

The motor cortex re-imagined. Reza Shadmehr (2009) Nature Neuroscience 12:667.

Computational approaches to motor control. Reza Shadmehr (2009) In: LR Squire (ed.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience 3:9-17.

A computational neuroanatomy for motor control. Reza Shadmehr and John W Krakauer (2008) Experimental Brain Research 185:359-381. 

Towards a computational neuropsychology of action.  John W Krakauerand Reza Shadmehr (2007) Progress in Brain Research 165:383-394. 

Consolidation of motor memory. John W Krakauer and Reza Shadmehr (2006) Trends in Neurosciences 29:58-64.  

Learning dynamics of reaching. R Shadmehr, O Donchin, EJ Hwang, SE Hemminger, and A Rao (2005) Motor Cortex in Voluntary Movements: A distributed system for distributed functions, A. Riehle and E. Vaadia (eds), CRC Press, pp. 297-328.  

Generalization as a behavioral window to the neural mechanisms of learning internal models. Reza Shadmehr (2004) Human Movement Science, 23:543-568.  

Motor Learning and Memory for Reaching and Pointing. Reza Shadmehr and Steven P Wise (2004) In: The Cognitive Neurosciences, Third Edition, M.S. Gazzaniga (ed), MIT Press, pp. 511-524. 

Motor control. Steven P Wise and Reza Shadmehr (2002) In: Encyclopedia of the Human Brain, Ramachandran, V. S. (ed), Academic Press: San Diego, CA, vol. 3, pp. 137-157.

Error correction and the basal ganglia. Maurce A Smith and Reza Shadmehr (2000) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4:367-369.

Learning and memory formation of arm movements. Reza Shadmehr, Thoroughman K (2000) In: Biomechanics and Neural Control of Movement, J. M. Winters and P. E. Crago (eds), Springer-Verlag, pp. 347-353.

The equilibrium point hypothesis for control of posture, movement, and manipulation.  Reza Shadmehr (1998) In: Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, M. A. Arbib (ed), MIT Press, pp. 370-372.  

Issues of actuator and kinematic redundancy in biological motor control. Reza Shadmehr (1991) In: Research Notes in Neural Computing: Visual Structures and Integrated Functions, MA Arbib, J-P Ewert (eds), Springer, pp. 239-254. 

Research Articles

Impact of human behavioral papers at Journal of Neuroscience. David J. Herzfeld and Reza Shadmehr (2018) BioRxiv

Estimating properties of the fast and slow adaptive processes during sensorimotor adaptation. Scott Albert and Reza Shadmehr (2018) Journal of Neurophysiology in press.  Model Fitting Tools

A representation of effort in decision making and motor control. Reza Shadmehr, Helen J. Huang, and Alaa A. Ahmed (2016) Current Biology, 26:1929-1934.   Supplementary-materials   Simulation-code   News&Views

The neural feedback response to error as a teaching signal for the motor learning system. Scott Albert and Reza Shadmehr (2016) Journal of Neuroscience 36:4832-4845. 

Biometric recognition via eye movements: saccadic vigor and acceleration cues. Ioannis Rigas, Oleg Komogortsev, and Reza Shadmehr (2016) ACM Trans. Applied Perception, 13(2):6. 

Modulation of saccade vigor during value-based decision making. Thomas R. Reppert, Karolina M. Lempert, Paul W. Glimcher, and Reza Shadmehr (2015) Journal of Neuroscience, 35:15369-15378. 

Encoding of action by the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. David J. Herzfeld, Yoshiko Kojima, Robi Soetedjo, and Reza Shadmehr (2015) Nature 526:439-442.   News and views

Modulation of error-sensitivity during a prism adaptation task in people with cerebellar degeneration. Ritsuko Hanajima, Reza Shadmehr, Shinaya Ohminami, Ryosuke Tsutsumi, Yuichiro Shirota, Takahiro Shimizu, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Yasuo Terao, Shoji Tsuji, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Motoaki Uchimura, Masato Inoue, and Shigeru Kitazawa (2015) Journal of Neurophysiology 114:2460-2471.

Altering effort costs in Parkinson's disease with non-invasive cortical stimulation. Yousef Salimpour, Zoltan K Mari, and Reza Shadmehr (2015) Journal of Neuroscience, 35:12287-12302.

Persistent residual errors in motor adaptation tasks: reversion to baseline and exploratory escapePavan A Vaswani, Lior Shmuelof, Adrian M Haith, RJ Delnicki, Vincent S Huang, Pietro Mazzoni, Reza Shadmehr, and John W Krakauer (2015) Journal of Neuroscience 35:6969-6977.

Reward dependent modulation of movement variability. Sarah E Pekny, Jun Izawa, and Reza Shadmehr (2015) Journal of Neuroscience 35:4015-4024.

Behavioral and neural basis of anomalous motor learning in children with autism. MK Marko, D Crocetti, T Hulst, O Donchin, R Shadmehr, and SH Mostofsky (2015) Brain 138:784-797.

Optimizing effort: time away from practice increases efficiency of motor memory. Sarah E Pekny and Reza Shadmehr (2015) Journal of Neurophysiology, 113:445-454.

A memory of errors in sensorimotor learning. David J Herzfeld, Pavan A Vaswani, Mollie K Marko, and Reza Shadmehr (2014) Science 345:1349-1353.

Contributions of the cerebellum and the motor cortex to acquistionand retention of motor memories. David J Herzfeld, Damion Pastor, Adrian M Haith, Yves Rossetti, Reza Shadmehr, and Jacinta O'Shea (2014) NeuroImage 98:147-158.

Motor costs and the coordination of the two arms. Yousef Salimpour and Reza Shadmehr (2014) Journal of Neuroscience 34:1806-1818. ThisWeekintheJournal

Vigor of movements and the cost of time in decision making. Jennie ES Choi, Pavan A Vaswani, and Reza Shadmehr (2014) Journal of Neuroscience 34:1212-1223.

Decay of motor memories in the absence of error. Pavan A Vaswaniand Reza Shadmehr (2013) Journal of Neuroscience 33:7700-7709.

Changes in corticospinal excitability during reach adaptation in force fields. JJ Orban de Xivry, MA Ahmadi-Pajouh, MD Harran, Y Salimpour, and R Shadmehr (2013) Journal of Neurophysiology 109:124-136.

Evidence for hyperbolic temporal discounting of reward in control of movements. AM Haith, TR Reppert, and R Shadmehr (2012) Journal of Neuroscience 32:11727-11736. 

Sensitivity to prediction error in reach adaptation. MK Marko, AM Haith, MD Harran, and R Shadmehr (2012) Journal of Neurophysiology 108:1752-1663. 

Preparing to reach: selecting an adaptive long-latency feedback controller. MA Ahmadi-Pajouh, F Towhidkhah, and R Shadmehr (2012) Journal of Neuroscience 32:9537-9545. 

Changes in saccade kinematics associated with the value and novelty of a stimulus. TR Reppert, JES Choi, AM Haith, and R Shadmehr (2012) Conference on Information Sciences and Systems 46:1-5. 

Cerebellar contributions to reach adaptation and learning sensory consequences of action. J Izawa, SE Criscimagna-Hemminger, and R Shadmehr (2012) Journal of Neuroscience 32:4230-4239. 

Motor learning relies on integrated sensory inputs in ADHD, but over-selectively on proprioception in Autism spectrum conditions. J Izawa, SE Pekny, MK Marko, C Haswell, R Shadmehr, and SH Mostofsky (2012) Autism Research 5:124-136. 

Protection and expression of human motor memories. SE Pekny, SE Criscimagna-Hemminger, and R Shadmehr (2011) Journal of Neuroscience 31:13829-13839. 

TMS perturbs saccade trajectories and unmasks an internal feedback controller for saccades.  M Xu-Wilson, J Tian, R Shadmehr, and DS Zee (2011) Journal of Neuroscience, 31: 11537-11546.  

Stimulation of the human motor cortex alters generalization patterns of motor learning. JJ Orban de Xivry, MK Marko, SE Pekny, D Pastor, J Izawa, P Celnik, and R Shadmehr (2011) Journal of Neuroscience, 31:7102-7110. 

Contributions of the motor cortex to adaptive control of reaching depend on the perturbation schedule. JJ Orban de Xivry, SE Criscimagna-Hemminger, and R Shadmehr (2011) Cerebral Cortex 21:1475-1484. 

Learning from sensory and reward prediction errors during motor adaptation. J Izawa and R Shadmehr (2011) PLoS Computational Biology 7:e1002012.

A shared resource between declarative memory and motor memory. A Keisler and R Shadmehr (2010) Journal of Neuroscience 30:14915-14924.  ThisWeekintheJournal  CurrentBiologyReview  JNS-JournalClub

Temporal discounting of reward and the cost of time in motor control (2010).  R Shadmehr, JJ Orban de Xivry, M Xu-Wilson, and TY Shih.  Journal of Neuroscience 30:10507-10516.  ThisWeekintheJournal

Size of error affects cerebellar contributions to motor learning. SE Criscimagna-Hemminger, AJ Bastian, and R Shadmehr (2010) Journal of Neurophysiology 103:2275-2284.

Cerebellar contributions to adaptive control of saccades in humans. M Xu-Wilson, H Chen-Harris, DS Zee, and R Shadmehr (2009) Journal of Neuroscience 29:12930-12939. 

Representation of internal models of action in the autistic brain. C Haswell, J Izawa, L Dowell, SH Mostofsky, and R Shadmehr (2009) Nature Neuroscience 12:970-972. 

Persistence of motor memories reflects statistics of the learning event. VS Huang and R Shadmehr (2009) Journal of Neurophysiology 102:931-940. 

The intrinsic value of visual information affects saccade velocities. M Xu-Wilson, DS Zee, and R Shadmehr (2009) Experimental Brain Research 196:475-481.

Changes in control of saccades during gain adaptation. V Ethier, DS Zee, and R Shadmehr (2008) Journal of Neuroscience 28:13929-13937.

Acquisition of internal models of motor tasks in children with autism. JC Gidley-Larson, AJ Bastian, O Donchin, R Shadmehr, and SH Mostofsky (2008) Brain 131:2894-2903. 

Online processing of uncertain information in visuomotor control. J Izawa and R Shadmehr (2008) Journal of Neuroscience 28:11360-11368. Supplementary-material    Matlab-Code

Consolidation patterns of human motor memory. SE Criscimagna-Hemminger and R Shadmehr (2008) Journal of Neuroscience 28:9610-9618. 
Reach adaptation: what determines whether we learn an internal model of the tool or adapt the model of our arm? J Kluzik, J Diedrichsen, R Shadmehr, and AJ Bastian (2008) Journal of Neurophysiology  100:1455-1464. 

Active learning: learning a motor skill without a coach. VS Huang, R Shadmehr, and J Diedrichsen (2008) Journal of Neurophysiology 100:879-887. 

Spontaneous recovery of motor memory during saccade adaptation. V Ethier, DS Zee, and R Shadmehr (2008) Journal of Neurophysiology 99:2577-2583.  

Adaptive control of saccades via internal feedback. H Chen-Harris, WM Joiner, V Ethier, DS Zee, and R Shadmehr (2008) Journal of Neuroscience 28:2804-2813.    Supplementary-material  JNS-JournalClub

Motor adaptation as a process of reoptimization.  J Izawa, T Rane, O Donchin, and R Shadmehr (2008) Journal of Neuroscience 28:2883-2891.    Supplementary-material

Sequential neural changes during motor learning in schizophrenia.  LM Rowland, R Shadmehr, D Kravitz, and HH Holcomb (2008) Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 163:1-12.

Impairment of retention but not acquisition of a visuomotor skill through time-dependent disruption of primary motor cortex. A Hadipour-Niktarash, CK Lee, JE Desmond, and R Shadmehr (2007) Journal of Neuroscience 27:13413-13419.  

Sensory prediction errors drive cerebellum-dependent adaptation of reaching. YW Tseng, J Diedrichsen, JW Krakauer, R Shadmehr, and AJ Bastian (2007) Journal of Neurophysiology 98:54-62.  

Dissociating timing and coordination as functions of the cerebellum. J Diedrichsen, SE Criscimagna-Hemminger, and R Shadmehr (2007) Journal of Neuroscience, 27:6291-6301. 

Evolution of motor memory during the seconds after observation of motor error.  VS Huang and R Shadmehr (2007) Journal of Neurophysiology 97:3976-3985.  

The dynamics of memory as a consequence of optimal adaptation to a changing body. KP Kording, J Tenenbaum, and R Shadmehr (2007) Nature Neuroscience 10:779-786.

Generalization of motor learning depends on history of prior action. JW Krakauer, P Mazzoni, A Ghazizadeh, R Ravindran, and R Shadmehr (2006)   PLoS Biology, 4:e316.  

A spatially unbiased atlas template of the human cerebellum.  J Diedrichsen (2006) NeuroImage, 33:127-138.  

Effects of cerebellar thalamus disruption on adaptive control of reaching. H Chen, SE Hua, MA Smith, FA Lenz, and R Shadmehr (2006) Cerebral Cortex, 16:1462-1473.  

Interacting adaptive processes with different timescales underlie short-term motor learning.  MA Smith, A Ghazizadeh, and R Shadmehr (2006) PLoS Biology 4:e179.  Synopsis

Why does the brain predict sensory consequences of oculomotor commands?  Optimal integration of the predicted and the actual sensory feedback. S Vaziri, J Diedrichsen, and R Shadmehr (2006) Journal of Neuroscience, 26:4188-4197.  

Dissociable effects of the implicit and explicit memory systems on learning control of reaching.  EJ Hwang, MA Smith, and R Shadmehr (2006) Experimental Brain Research, 173:425-437.  

Adaptation and generalization in acceleration dependent force fields. EJ Hwang, MA Smith, and R Shadmehr (2006) Experimental Brain Research 169:496-506.

Neural correlates of reach errors. J Diedrichsen, Y Hashambhoy, T Rane, and R Shadmehr (2005) Journal of Neuroscience 25:9919-9931.  

Internal models of limb dynamics and encoding of limb state. EJ Hwang and R Shadmehr (2005) Journal of Neural Engineering 2:S266-S278.  

Detecting and adjusting for artifacts in fMRI time series data. J Diedrichsen, and R Shadmehr (2005) Neuroimage 27:624-634. 

Intact ability to learn internal models of arm dynamics in Huntington's disease but not cerebellar degeneration. MA Smith and R Shadmehr (2005) Journal of Neurophysiology 93:2809-2821. 

Internal models and contextual cues: encoding serial order and direction of movement. SK Wainscott, O Donchin, and R Shadmehr (2005) Journal of Neurophysiology 93:786-800.  

Parametric models for motion planning and control in biomimetic robotics. GS Dordevic, M Rasic, and R Shadmehr (2005) IEEE Transactions in Robotics 21:80-92.

Change in desired trajectory caused by training in a novel motor task. O Donchin, and R Shadmehr (2004) Proc IEEE EMBS 26:4495-4497.

Saccade adaptation in response to altered arm dynamics. T Nanayakkara, and R Shadmehr (2003) Journal of Neurophysiology  90:4016-4021. 

A Gain-Field Encoding of Limb Position and Velocity in the Internal Model of Arm Dynamics. EJ Hwang, O Donchin, MA Smith, and R Shadmehr (2003) PLoS Biology 1(2):209-220.    Supplementary-material   Synopsis

Quantifying generalization from trial-by-trial behavior of adaptive systems that learn with basis functions: Theory and experiments in human motor control. O Donchin, JT Francis, and R Shadmehr (2003) Journal of Neuroscience, 23:9032-9045.    Supplementary-material
Learned dynamics of reaching movements generalize from dominant to non-dominant arm. SE Criscimagna-Hemminger, O Donchin, MS Gazzaniga, and R Shadmehr (2003) Journal of Neurophysiology 89:168-176.

Mechanisms influencing acquisition and recall of motor memories. O Donchin, L Sawaki, G Madupu, LG Cohen, and R Shadmehr (2002) Journal of Neurophysiology 88:2114-2123.  

A real-time state predictor in motor control: study of saccadic eye movements during unseen reaching movements. G Ariff, O Donchin, T Nanayakkara, and R Shadmehr (2002) Journal of Neuroscience 22:7721-7729.  

Linking motor learning to function approximation: Learning in an unlearnable force field. O Donchin and R Shadmehr (2002) Adv Neural Inform Proc Systems, Dietterich T. G., Becker S., Ghahramani Z. (eds), MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, vol. 14, pp. 197-203. 

Learning dynamics of reaching movements results in the modification of arm impedance and long-latency perturbation responses. T Wang, GS Dordevic, and R Shadmehr (2001) Biological Cybernetics 85:437-448.  

Long-Term Adaptation to Dynamics of Reaching Movements: A PET Study. R Nezafat, R Shadmehr, and HH Holcomb (2001) Experimental Brain Research 140:66-76. 

Learning of action through adaptive combination of motor primitives. KA Thoroughman and R Shadmehr (2000) Nature 407:742-747.    News&Views

Spatial generalization from learning dynamics of reaching movements. R Shadmehr and ZMK Moussavi (2000) Journal of Neuroscience, 20:7807-7815.  

Motor disorder in Huntington's disease begins as a dysfunction in error feedback control. MA Smith, J Brandt, and R Shadmehr (2000) Nature 403:544-549.  News&Views

Electromyographic correlates of learning an internal model of reaching movements. KA Thoroughman and R Shadmehr (1999) Journal of Neuroscience 19:8573-8588.  

Computational nature of human adaptive control during learning of reaching movements in force fields. N Bhushan, and R Shadmehr (1999) Biological Cybernetics 81:39-60.  

Evidence for a forward dynamics model in human adaptive motor control. N Bhushan, and R Shadmehr (1999) Adv Neural Inform Proc Systems 11:3-9.  

Inhibitory Control of Competing Motor Memories. R Shadmehr, and HH Holcomb (1999) Experimental Brain Research 126:235-251.  

Time dependent motor memory processes in amnesic subjects. R Shadmehr, J Brandt, and S Corkin (1998) Journal of Neurophysiology 80:1590-1597. 

Neural correlates of motor memory consolidation. R Shadmehr and HH Holcomb (1997) Science 277:821-825.  

Functional stages in the formation of human long-term motor memory. R Shadmehr and T Brashers-Krug (1997) Journal of Neuroscience 17:409-419. 

Augmented feedback presented in a virtual environment accelerates learning of a difficult motor task. E Todorov, R Shadmehr, and E Bizzi(1997) Journal of Motor Behaviour 29:147-158

Consolidation in human motor memory. T Brashers-Krug, R Shadmehr, and E Bizzi (1996) Nature 382:252-255. 

Sense of muscular effort and somesthetic afferent information in humans. JN Sanes, and R Shadmehr (1995) Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 73(2):223-233. 

Interference in learning internal models of inverse dynamics in humans. R Shadmehr, T Brashers-Krug, and FA Mussa-Ivaldi (1995) In: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, vol. 7, G Tesauro, DS Touretzky, TK Leen (eds), MIT Press, pp. 1117-24. 

Catastrophic interference in human motor learning. T Brashers-Krug, R Shadmehr, and E Todorov (1995) In: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, vol. 7, G Tesauro, DS Touretzky, TK Leen (eds), MIT Press, pp. 19-26.

Adaptive representation of dynamics during learning of a motor task. R Shadmehr and FA Mussa-Ivaldi (1994) Journal of Neuroscience 14:3208-3224. 

Computational elements of the adaptive controller of the human arm. R Shadmehr, and FA Mussa-Ivaldi (1994) In: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, JD Cowan, G Tesauro, J Alspector(eds), vol. 6, Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 1077-1084. 

Postural force fields of the human arm and their role in generating multi-joint movements. R Shadmehr, FA Mussa-Ivaldi, E Bizzi (1993) Journal of Neuroscience 13(1):45-62.  

Control of equilibrium position and stiffness through postural modules. R Shadmehr (1993) Journal of Motor Behavior 25(3):228-241. 

Geometric structure of the adaptive controller of the human arm. R Shadmehr and FA Mussa-Ivaldi (1993) A.I. Memo 1437, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, M. I. T.

Principal component analysis of optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry: Application to Reactive Ion Etch process parameter estimation. R Shadmehr, D Angell, PB Chou, GS Oehrlein, and RS Jaffe (1992) Journal of Electrochemical Society 139(3):907-914. 

A mathematical analysis of the force-stiffness characteristics of muscles and the role of reflexes in control of a single joint system. R Shadmehr, and MA Arbib (1992) Biological Cybernetics 66:463-477. 

A target feedback device for ventilatory muscle training. MJ Belman and R Shadmehr (1991) Journal of Clinical Monitoring 7(1):42-48. 

Learning virtual equilibrium trajectories for control of a robot arm. R Shadmehr (1990) Neural Computation 2(4):446-456. 

A neural network for non-linear Bayesian estimation in drug therapy. R Shadmehr and DZ D'Argenio (1990) Neural Computation 2:216-225. 

Relative contribution of neuro-transmission failure to muscle fatigue. JH Kuei, R Shadmehr, and GC Sieck (1990) Journal of Applied Physiology 68(1):174-180. 

Efficacy of positive vs. negative pressure ventilation in unloading the respiratory muscles. MJ Belman, GW Soo Hoo, JH Kuei, and R Shadmehr (1990) Chest 98:850-856.

A neural model for generation of some behaviors in the fictive scratch reflex. R Shadmehr (1989) Neural Computation 1(2):240-250. 

Targeted resistive ventilatory muscle training in chronic obstructive pulmonary dis ease. MJ Belman and R Shadmehr (1988) Journal of Applied Physiology 65:2726-2735.  


Movement vigor: consistency, conservation, and modulation. Thomas R. Reppert (2016) PhD Thesis, Johns Hopkins University.

The role of error-sensitivity in motor adaptation. David J. Herzfeld (2016) PhD Thesis, Johns Hopkins University.

Sensitivity to motor error in children with autism. Mollie Marko (2014) PhD Thesis, Johns Hopkins University.

Action selection in motor control: error, reward, and time. Pavan A. Vaswani (2014) PhD Thesis, Johns Hopkins University.

Adaptive control of saccades via internal feedback. Minnan Xu(2010) PhD Thesis, Johns Hopkins University.

Signature of the multiple timescales of memory in adaptive control of human saccades. Vincent Ethier (2008) MS Thesis, Johns Hopkins University.

Cerebellar and Cerebellar-Thalamic Contributions to Motor Adaptation. Haiyin Chen (2007) PhD Thesis, Johns Hopkins University.

Time-dependent contribution of primary motor cortex to visuomotor memory retention. Christine Lee (2006) MS Thesis, Johns HopkinsUniversity.

Saccadic remapping of reach targets. Siavash Vaziri (2006) MS Thesis, Johns Hopkins University.

State-space models of online acquisition in motor memory. Ali Ghazizadeh (2005) MS Thesis, Johns Hopkins University.

Representation of proprioceptive information for generation of arm dynamics. EunJung Hwang (2004) PhD Thesis, Johns HopkinsUniversity.

Error correction, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. Maurice Smith (2001) PhD Thesis, Johns Hopkins University.

Control force change due to adaptation of forward model in human motor control. Tie Wang (2000) MS Thesis, Johns Hopkins University.

A Computational Approach to Human Adaptive Motor Control. Nikhil Bhushan (1998) MS Thesis, Johns Hopkins University.